Average output voltage (VDC) Rectifier

The ration of the summation of the all the points in the output wave form to the base value is called Average value. For example if a wave spread from 0 to 10 then the base value is 10-0 =10.

This indicates average DC content in the output voltage of the rectifier. If this pulsating DC to an electronic component with the high frequency, It looks like some constant value is applied to the electronic component that is called average value.

## RMS valve of AC (Vrms) of Rectifier

The R.M.S. (or effective) value of an alternating voltage or current (AC) is the value which would produce the same amount of heat energy in a resistor as a direct voltage or current (DC) of the same magnitude. Some amount AC which flows through the resistor is dissipated in the form heat, the RMS value equates this magnitude of AC with corresponding DC. The rectifier output will be pulsating DC which contains the AC component also, so the RMS value calculates the AC magnitude which is presented in pulsating DC.

## Peak inverse Voltage of Rectifier

The peak inverse voltage is the inverse peak voltage across the diode. I.e. when the diode is reverse biased for negative peak voltage (inverse peak voltage), the total voltage will drop across the diode. This voltage across the diode is called peak inverse voltage.

## Regulation of Rectifier

The DC voltage varies as the load current varies the percentage variation of DC voltage as a function of this DC load current called regulation.

That is if the regulation percentage is 10% then for the full load the voltage deviation from no voltage will be 10%. For an ideal circuit the %regulation is zero or it should be less.

## Ripple factor of Rectifier

The rectifier converts AC to pulsating DC i.e. the output contains some AC ripple content in output DC voltage. The ripple factor is the measure of this fluctuating content in the DC output voltage. I.e. How much factor that the RMS value of AC content presented in the DC output voltage.

I_{rms }and Vrms denote the value of the A.C components of the current and voltage in the output respectively.

## Efficiency of Rectifier

The efficiency is the ratio of the DC power delivered to the load to the AC input power. I.e. During conversion some of the power will be dissipate in the elements like diode, resistor and transformer in the form losses. So the efficiency is the measure of converted useful DC output power from the input AC Output power.

## Transformer Utilization factor of Rectifier

Transformer** **utilization factor is the ratio of the DC power at output load to the Transformer secondary rated power.

The transformer rated power is the combination of transformer secondary useful power and losses in the secondary.

I.e. Transformer rate power = transformer secondary power + heat losses in the secondary winding.

Where as in the efficiency calculation, the useful transformer secondary power only is taken in to account. The transformer utilization factor specifies the losses and the transformer rating should be considered for obtaining some specific DC output.