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What is Synchronization?
Synchronization is the process of comparing the two source parameters like voltage, frequency and phase angle and connecting them together to operate in parallel. I.e. it is desired to assure that the two AC power sources are in synchronism before connecting together. The device used to measure the degree of synchronization between the two AC power systems is called synchronization unit which consists of Dual voltage meter, Dual Frequency meter, Synchroscope and Synchronization check relay. Figure shows the basic arrangement of synchronization unit between the two AC power sources. The existing power source is called running power source and the power source to be connected is called incoming power source.
Here the power system can be a single power source if only two power sources to be operated in parallel or it is a group of running generators in case of incoming generator has to be connected with grid power supply. The bus voltages are sensed by the potential transformers and provided as input to the synchronizing unit. The output of the synchronization unit is connected to the circuit breaker to close it after the permission of synch check relay. The synchronization operation can be done in two ways based on the selection by the operator; one is AUTO and another one MAN. Manual operation is done by the operator and AUTO operation is done by the micro controller. In both the Manual and Automatic synchronization the process will be done carefully to unnecessary damage to the equipment and power system because of poor synchronization.
Need of Synchronization
- To avoid the damage to the prime mover due to heave acceleration forces
- To ensure the perfect connection of two AC power sources without any disturbance
- To avoid the damage to the Generator and Generator transformer windings due to high currents
- To ensure the safety of the equipment and operating personal
- Perfect synchronization connection reduces the power and voltage variations in the plant and outside the plant.